A Lesson from Confucius: The Concept of a Chun-Tzu

Every one of us desires to live in a place where peace and harmony exists. Nobody in this world would deny a life that is peaceful and meaningful, nor deny a place where he, together with his love ones is well-secured. Since man live in a world that is full of trials, he is prone in experiencing the difficulties and challenges in life. We cannot deny the fact that the world we are living is not safe at all. Immorality is observed everywhere; corruption in any aspect is rampant; ignorance imprisons a lot of people, etc. Considering all of the influences that this world can give us, we strive to overcome all of these treats, and make important actions that only rationality can provide.

Here comes a man with an idea on what is to be really a man of rationality. Confucius was considered a moral philosopher of the ancient China. His philosophy was mainly concerned about the practical way of life. He lived in a warring state period where violence and injustice is rampant.


Judgment, Proposition, and Sentence

Judgment is made when we compare, contrast, or state relations between or among ideas. In this mental operation, the mind expresses the ideas’ agreement or disagreement.
Making a judgment is mentally affirming or denying one idea of another. For instance, our intellect may associate the ideas ‘this fruit’ and ‘apple’ to pronounce, This fruit is an apple.”


A Short History of Logic

A Short History of Logic
© 2010 by Jensen DG. Mañebog
Notable pre-Aristotelian philosophers who prepared the way for the formal study of Logic include Zeno of Elea, the Sophists, Socrates, and Plato. 
Ancient Period  (650 B. C.-400 A.D.)
Considered by some as the founder of dialectic, Zeno of Elea (490-430 B. C.) provided early examples of arguments and paradoxes. Socrates (470-399 B. C.) gave emphasis on definition, deduction, and the use of dialectic to obtain non-relative truths. Plato, his student, was also concern about truth in such a way that the correspondence theory of truth—that which attempts to make the connection between the world and our descriptions of it—can be attributed to him.


Questions for Discussions and Oral Exam in Ethics

The following are some questions and topics which can be used for essay questions, during discussions, and for oral examinations in Ethics (Moral Philosophy):
Ethics: A Primer
1. Relate ‘morality’ and ‘ethics.’
2. Why is the subject Ethics important?
3. Why is it significant to know the correct foundation of morality?
4. Which is more sensible: moral supernaturalism or moral secularism? Defend your answer.
5. “Secularism or Enlightenment thinking is not the answer to the question on what should be the foundation of morality.” Agree or disagree. Explain your answer.
6. “Atheism inevitably leads to violence and hedonism.” Agree or disagree. Prove.
7. Differentiate moral supernaturalism and moral secularism.
Ethics: General Subject Areas and Fundamental Concepts
1. Differentiate deontology and teleology.
2. Contrast meta-ethics with normative ethics.
3. Why is applied ethics important?
4. Agree or disagree: “Moral universalism is more plausible than moral relativism.” Defend your answer.
5. “Moral cognitivism is more sensible than moral non-cognitivism.” Justify/criticize.
6. “Empiricism, rationalism, and intuitionism are sensible theories in Ethics.” Justify/criticize.


Logic, Critical Thinking, and Philosophy

In this sentence, the word ‘Logic’ is used to refer to someone’s argument or reasoning. It exemplifies one of the various ways the term ‘Logic’ is defined. However, we are more concerned here with the word ‘Logic’ as referring to the name of an academic subject taught in colleges around the world, as in “Philosophy 101: Introduction to Logic.”
Logic defined
Etymologically, the word ‘Logic’ came from the Greek word ‘logos’ which means ‘reason.’ It is thus not surprising that the subject deals with human reason or modes of reasoning. As a field of study, Logic teaches the rules for correct and proper reasoning.
            The famous philosopher Thomas Aquinas defined Logic as “the science and art which directs the act of the reason, by which a man in the exercise of his reason is enabled to proceed without error, confusion, or unnecessary difficulty." The classic Logic textbook ‘Port Royal Logic’ (1662), on the other hand, defined it as “the art of using reason well in the acquisition of the knowledge of things, both for one's own instruction and that of others."
          Nowadays, Logic is comprehensively defines as “the philosophical science and art that analyzes arguments and inferences to discern valid from invalid forms of reasoning.”


Guides in Symbolizing Statements and Arguments

© 2012 byJensen dG. Mañebog
IN NATURAL DEDUCTION or providing formal proof for the validity of arguments and other logical operations, symbolizing the argument is the first step. This means correctly translating all the premises and conclusion into symbols. The following are some guides in properly symbolizing statements and arguments:
1. “One to one correspondence”. There must only be one symbol (letter) to be used consistently for each simple statement.
2. Use uppercase letters. Conventionally, capital letters (e.g. A, B, C) are used to symbolize statements.
3. Use the first letter of the subject or the predicate. Unless specified, it is reasonable to choose those letters to represent the whole statement. “Mandy is a student” is thus symbolized as “M”.  But if in an argument, there are statements “Mandy is a student” and “He (Mandy) is an athlete”, they should be symbolized as “S” (for student) and “A” (for athlete), respectively.


The Concept of Negation in Logic

© 2012 byJensen dG. Mañebog
THE CONCEPT OF NEGATION introduces another operator which is so functional in logical operations, especially in determining the truth of falsity of compound statements with negated components. By operator, we mean a symbol, term, or other entity that performs or describes an operation, like the compound-statements symbols.
            Considered by some logicians as a special kind of compound statement, negation is a statement of denial or contradiction. It can also be interpreted as an assertion that a particular statement is false. The symbol used for negation is the tilde (~) or simply the negative sign (-). “It is not the case that”, “it isn’t true that”, and “it is false that” are the phrases that usually express the idea of negation. Sometimes, the single word ‘not’ embedded in a sentence is enough to indicate negation.
It is not the case that Trillanes is Chinese. (-T)
It isn’t true that Azkals is a basketball team. (-A)
It is false that Obama is from Olongapo. (-O)
Mayweather is not gay. (-M)


Notes on Natural Deduction

WE HAVE TO USE the appropriate rules of inference in constructing formal proofs of arguments’ validity depending on the kind of propositions they use. The following are some basic techniques in properly constructing proof of validity of arguments.

1.Always begin by identifying the conclusion and attempting to look for it in the premises.
2. If the conclusion is a letter that appears in the consequent of a conditional statement in the premises, consider obtaining it through modus ponens.
3.If the conclusion is a negative statement (negated letter) that appears in the antecedent of a conditional statement in the premises, consider getting it using modus tollens:
4. If the conclusion is a conditional statement, consider obtaining it via hypothetical syllogism:
5.If the conclusion is a letter that appears in a disjunctive statement in the premises, consider getting hold of it via disjunctive syllogism.
6. If the conclusion contains a letter that appears in a conjunction in the premises, consider obtaining that letter via simplification...


Rules of Inference: Sample Exam

by @jensenismo
Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid. If the argument is valid, state the rule of inference used. If it is invalid, name the fallacy committed.

1. If millions of children die yearly from starvation, then something is wrong with the government. Millions of children die yearly from starvation.
Therefore, something is wrong with the government.

2. If world population continues to grow, then Manila will become hopelessly overcrowded.
If Manila become hopelessly overcrowded, then Manila will become polluted.
Therefore, if world population continues to grow, then Manila will become polluted.

3. Either the breach is a safety violation, or it is not subject to fines.
The breach is a not safety violation.
Therefore, it is not subject to fines.



© 2012 by Jensen DG. Mañebog
AN INFERENCE is a mental process by which we pass from one or more statements to another
that is logically related to the former. Based on the number of their premise, inferences are basically classified into two:

1.Immediate Inference – consists in passing directly from a single premise to a conclusion. It is reasoning, without the intermediacy of a middle term or second proposition, from one proposition to another which necessarily follows from it.
Ex: No Dalmatians are cats. Therefore, no cats are Dalmatians.
     All squares are polygons. Therefore, some polygons are squares.

2.Mediate Inference- consists in deriving a conclusion from two or more logically interrelated premises. Involving an advance in knowledge, it is reasoning that involves the intermediacy of a middle term or second proposition which warrants the drawing of a new truth.
Ex: All true Christians are theists.
     Paul is a true Christian.
    Therefore, Paul is a theist.



Subscribe to RSS - Philosophy

Sponsored Links