Philosophy

Philosophy

Free NAT High School Critical Thinking Reviewer

This Free NAT High School Critical Thinking Reviewer  is for the National Achievement Test--an annual examination given to Grade sixth and tenth students in the Philippines.

The students' knowledge and mastery over the subjects English, Mathematics, Science, Filipino, and Hekasi is measured using a multiple choice type of test. The examination is administered by the Department of Education's National Educational Testing and Research Center (NETRC).

This National Achievement Test (NAT) reviewer focuses on Critical Thinking:

This reviewer is a not an official product of DepEd, CHED, or any institution. This is a contribution of the following persons (see OurHappySchool.com Disclaimer):

Romelito Osano, Rolando Siodena, Angelica Pascua, Carl John Carreon, Allan Canete, and Jefferson Santillan

Subjects:

Logic Jensenismo Final Exam II

With or without taking the subject Logic, you could learn the subject's basic concepts by taking this e-learning quiz game: Logic Jensenismo Final Exam II.

Note for the students: The first part of this entry (Learn) is for you to review the concepts involved in the exam. The second part below (Test) is what will be graded and recorded.

Subjects:

Logic Jensenismo Final Exam I

With or without taking the subject Logic, you could learn the subject's basic concepts by taking this e-learning quiz game: Logic Jensenismo Final Exam I.

Note for the students: The first part of this entry (Learn) is for you to review the concepts involved in the exam. The second part below (Test & Essay) is what will be graded and recorded.

Subjects:

A Lesson from Confucius: The Concept of a Chun-Tzu

Every one of us desires to live in a place where peace and harmony exists. Nobody in this world would deny a life that is peaceful and meaningful, nor deny a place where he, together with his love ones is well-secured. Since man live in a world that is full of trials, he is prone in experiencing the difficulties and challenges in life. We cannot deny the fact that the world we are living is not safe at all. Immorality is observed everywhere; corruption in any aspect is rampant; ignorance imprisons a lot of people, etc. Considering all of the influences that this world can give us, we strive to overcome all of these treats, and make important actions that only rationality can provide.

Here comes a man with an idea on what is to be really a man of rationality. Confucius was considered a moral philosopher of the ancient China. His philosophy was mainly concerned about the practical way of life. He lived in a warring state period where violence and injustice is rampant.

Subjects:

Judgment, Proposition, and Sentence

 
Judgment is made when we compare, contrast, or state relations between or among ideas. In this mental operation, the mind expresses the ideas’ agreement or disagreement.
Making a judgment is mentally affirming or denying one idea of another. For instance, our intellect may associate the ideas ‘this fruit’ and ‘apple’ to pronounce, This fruit is an apple.”

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A Short History of Logic

 
A Short History of Logic
© 2010 by Jensen DG. Mañebog
 
Notable pre-Aristotelian philosophers who prepared the way for the formal study of Logic include Zeno of Elea, the Sophists, Socrates, and Plato. 
 
Ancient Period  (650 B. C.-400 A.D.)
Considered by some as the founder of dialectic, Zeno of Elea (490-430 B. C.) provided early examples of arguments and paradoxes. Socrates (470-399 B. C.) gave emphasis on definition, deduction, and the use of dialectic to obtain non-relative truths. Plato, his student, was also concern about truth in such a way that the correspondence theory of truth—that which attempts to make the connection between the world and our descriptions of it—can be attributed to him.
 

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Questions for Discussions and Oral Exam in Ethics

 
The following are some questions and topics which can be used for essay questions, during discussions, and for oral examinations in Ethics (Moral Philosophy):
 
Ethics: A Primer
1. Relate ‘morality’ and ‘ethics.’
2. Why is the subject Ethics important?
3. Why is it significant to know the correct foundation of morality?
4. Which is more sensible: moral supernaturalism or moral secularism? Defend your answer.
5. “Secularism or Enlightenment thinking is not the answer to the question on what should be the foundation of morality.” Agree or disagree. Explain your answer.
6. “Atheism inevitably leads to violence and hedonism.” Agree or disagree. Prove.
7. Differentiate moral supernaturalism and moral secularism.
 
Ethics: General Subject Areas and Fundamental Concepts
1. Differentiate deontology and teleology.
2. Contrast meta-ethics with normative ethics.
3. Why is applied ethics important?
4. Agree or disagree: “Moral universalism is more plausible than moral relativism.” Defend your answer.
5. “Moral cognitivism is more sensible than moral non-cognitivism.” Justify/criticize.
6. “Empiricism, rationalism, and intuitionism are sensible theories in Ethics.” Justify/criticize.
 

Subjects:

Logic, Critical Thinking, and Philosophy

 
 “I DON’T AGREE WITH HIS LOGIC”.
 
In this sentence, the word ‘Logic’ is used to refer to someone’s argument or reasoning. It exemplifies one of the various ways the term ‘Logic’ is defined. However, we are more concerned here with the word ‘Logic’ as referring to the name of an academic subject taught in colleges around the world, as in “Philosophy 101: Introduction to Logic.”
 
Logic defined
Etymologically, the word ‘Logic’ came from the Greek word ‘logos’ which means ‘reason.’ It is thus not surprising that the subject deals with human reason or modes of reasoning. As a field of study, Logic teaches the rules for correct and proper reasoning.
            The famous philosopher Thomas Aquinas defined Logic as “the science and art which directs the act of the reason, by which a man in the exercise of his reason is enabled to proceed without error, confusion, or unnecessary difficulty." The classic Logic textbook ‘Port Royal Logic’ (1662), on the other hand, defined it as “the art of using reason well in the acquisition of the knowledge of things, both for one's own instruction and that of others."
          Nowadays, Logic is comprehensively defines as “the philosophical science and art that analyzes arguments and inferences to discern valid from invalid forms of reasoning.”

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Thomas Aquinas' Ethics: An Analysis

 ALSO CALLED THE ANGELIC DOCTOR and the Prince of Scholastics, Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) is an Italian philosopher and theologianwho ranks among the most important thinkers of the medieval time period. 
 
In Ethics, Aquinas depends so heavily on Aristotle. Like the Greek philosopher, Aquinas believes that all actions are directed towards ends and that happiness is the final end.Aquinas also thinks that happiness is not equated with pleasure, material possessions, honor, or any sensual good, but consists in activities in accordance with virtue. A person needs a moral character cultivated through the habits of choice to realize real happiness. But like Augustine, Aquinas declares that this ultimate happiness is not attainable in this life, forhappiness in the present life remains imperfect. True happiness,then, is to be found only in the souls of the blessed inheaven orin beatitude with God.

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Guides in Symbolizing Statements and Arguments

© 2012 byJensen dG. Mañebog
 
IN NATURAL DEDUCTION or providing formal proof for the validity of arguments and other logical operations, symbolizing the argument is the first step. This means correctly translating all the premises and conclusion into symbols. The following are some guides in properly symbolizing statements and arguments:
1. “One to one correspondence”. There must only be one symbol (letter) to be used consistently for each simple statement.
2. Use uppercase letters. Conventionally, capital letters (e.g. A, B, C) are used to symbolize statements.
3. Use the first letter of the subject or the predicate. Unless specified, it is reasonable to choose those letters to represent the whole statement. “Mandy is a student” is thus symbolized as “M”.  But if in an argument, there are statements “Mandy is a student” and “He (Mandy) is an athlete”, they should be symbolized as “S” (for student) and “A” (for athlete), respectively.

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