The Death of Jose Rizal: Ambeth Ocampo’s version

Editor’s note: The following is the article written by today’s most famous Filipino historian Ambeth R. Ocampo on Jose Rizal’s death. Simply entitled, “The Death of Jose Rizal,” this historical piece by the current head of the National Historical Institute (of the Philippines) could be deemed refreshing and controversial, as it offers several unpopular and unorthodox accounts of what (presumably) transpired on the day of Rizal’s execution. For one thing, it virtually proclaims that Rizal refused to kiss the crucifix before he was executed, thereby negating the claim of other historians (like Zaide) that the national hero even asked for this Catholic sacramental. Happy reading!
… Although he was walking to his death, eyewitnesses describe Rizal as serene – a bit pale, not because of fear of his fate, but because he had not had any breakfast. All he had been given were three hard-boiled eggs, which he took to a corner of his prison cell, saying, “This is for the rats; let them have a fiesta, too.” Then he left his cell ...


Science & Ethics compared: Are There Proofs in Ethics too?

BECAUSE SCIENCE IS, or is supposedly, empirical or verifiable, it seems to provide our paradigm of objectivity. And in comparing ethics to science, “ethics seems to lack the features that make science so compelling” (James Rachels,The Elements of Moral Philosophy: 1999).

          In fact, many assert that there are no proofs in ethics. While we can prove that the world is round and that two plus two equals five, we cannot, they say, prove that abortion is right or wrong. So the “No-Proof Argument” as outlined by Rachels goes like this:


Are there ‘moral facts’?

THE FAMOUS SCOTTISH PHILOSOPHER David Hume (1711-1776) claimed that if we examine wicked actions—“willful murder, for instance”—we will find nomatter of fact” corresponding to the wickedness. This view, which was adopted by many contemporary evolutionists and atheists like Richard Dawkins, suggests that the universe, apart from our attitudes, contains no such [moral] facts.


Emotivism Analyzed: Moral judgment is backed by reason

EMOTIVISM IS THE THEORY IN ETHICS that states that moral judgments do not state any fact at all but are mere expressions of one’s attitude used to influence people’s attitudes and conduct.
          Nonetheless, ethicist James Rachels in his bookThe Elements of Moral Philosophy (USA:McGraw-Hill College, 3rd ed., 1999) proved very well that a moral judgment or any kind of value judgment must be supported by good reasons ...


Some Guides to Living Happily

1. ALLOW NO ANGER to rule your spirit.

2. Allow no fear in your life.

3. Always keep an open mind.

4. Always be loyal to your friends. Enjoy them.

5. Always be compassionate to the poor.



... 5. Emotivism differentiates reporting an attitude (e.g. “I like Hitler”) and expressing the same attitude (“Hurrah for Hitler!”).  The former is either true or false unlike the former which just expresses an attitude, but does not even report that someone has it.

6. According to Emotivism, moral language “is notfact-stating language; it is not typically used to convey information.”

7. “Moral language is used, first, as a means of influencing people’s behavior. “You ought not to do that” is treated like a command “Don’t do that!” ...

8. Second, moral language is used “to express (not report) one’s attitude.” Saying “Gautama was a good man” is not like saying “I approve of Gautama,” but it is like saying “Hurrah for Gautama!” ...


Simple Subjectivism: An Analysis

THE SIMPLEST VERSION of the theory in Ethics named Subjectivism states that when a person says that something is morally good, this means that he approves of that thing, and nothing more. Philosophy professor at University of Alabama at Birmingham James Rachels (1941-2003) simplified the theory this way:

            “X is morally acceptable”   
            “X is right”                                  
            “X is good”                                  
            “X ought to be done”
            These all mean: “I (the speaker)approve of X.” ...



... 6.  “There is no such thing as objective right or wrong.” (It is a fact that some people are homosexual and some are heterosexual; but it is not a fact that one is good and the other bad.)
7. “When someone says that a thing (e.g. homosexuality) is immoral, he is not stating a fact about it but merely saying something about his feelings toward it.”
8. “In expressing that an action is evil (e.g. Hitler’s extermination of millions of innocent people), we are not stating a fact about that action; rather we are saying that we have negative feelings toward it.” ...


Vacation 101: 5 tips to enjoy it significantly

Loraine Cajucom, the contributor, is also called “Raine” by her classmates. (You, too, can have your articles published here. Send them through e-mail to

VACATION! THIS IS THE WORD every student loves to hear. The time to relax and do nothing. However, as days pass by during vacation, we usually become bored for not doing anything worthwhile. So how can we spend our vacation in a significant and enjoyable way?
Well, here are some things that you can do—activities in which you can help, learn, and most importantly have fun!...


Facts About Facebook You May Not Know

Vivian D. Vocalan, the contributor, is into designing and painting shirts during free times. (You, too, can have your articles published here. Send them through e-mail to

... * 60+% of people online use Facebook to stalk their ex!
* There is a country that doesn’t allow Facebook--Syria.
* 30+ million profiles have their status messages updated at least once every day.
* 70% of college students on Facebook log in every single day ...



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