© 2012 by Jensen DG. Mañebog
AN INFERENCE is a mental process by which we pass from one or more statements to another
that is logically related to the former. Based on the number of their premise, inferences are basically classified into two:

1.Immediate Inference – consists in passing directly from a single premise to a conclusion. It is reasoning, without the intermediacy of a middle term or second proposition, from one proposition to another which necessarily follows from it.
Ex: No Dalmatians are cats. Therefore, no cats are Dalmatians.
     All squares are polygons. Therefore, some polygons are squares.

2.Mediate Inference- consists in deriving a conclusion from two or more logically interrelated premises. Involving an advance in knowledge, it is reasoning that involves the intermediacy of a middle term or second proposition which warrants the drawing of a new truth.
Ex: All true Christians are theists.
     Paul is a true Christian.
    Therefore, Paul is a theist.
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The various types of inferences
The following outline serves as a guide in understanding the different types of inference according to various classifications.

I. Induction
II. Deduction
A. Immediate Inference
                        1. Oppositional Inference
                                    a. Contrary Opposition
                                    b. Contradictory Opposition
                                    c. Subaltern Opposition
                                    d. Subcontrary Opposition

                        2. Eduction
                                    a. Obversion                
                                    b. Conversion            
                                    c. Contraposition      
                                    d. Inversion               

                        3. Possibility and Actuality   

B. Mediate Inference
                        1. Categorical Syllogism
                        2. Hypothetical Syllogism                 
                                    a. Conditional Syllogism       
                                    b. Disjunctive Syllogism                   
                                    c. Conjunctive Syllogism      

                        3. Special Types of Syllogism
                                    a. Enthymeme                                   
                                    b. Epichireme                        
                                    c. Polysyllogism                     
                                    d. Sorites                                
                                    e. Dilemma                                    
This outline explains, for instance, that the classic inference called conditional syllogism is a deductive mediate inference, while contrariety is a deductive immediate inference under oppositional reasoning.
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Inference is important because it can help us to exercise our mental reasoning that we can apply in our daily lives. And it can help us to determine what is the difference between valid or truth argument.

Inference is important because we can distinguish correct from incorrect reasoning and by this we will always arrive at the truth.

The study of inference or inference itself is important in logic, it allows us to know if the conclusion extracted to a logically related statements is sound, valid or invalid and whether it is true or false and for us to determine what types of inference is a certain conclusion is whether it is immediate or mediate.

Inference is as significant as reasoning by which we are able to learn to come up with a proper and appropriate conclusion drawn from given premises and propositions.

Inference is important because it is a process which distinguish an argument if it is true, valid or sound


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