WORLD RELIGIONS IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY: IMPORTANT TOPICS

WORLD RELIGIONS IN PHILIPPINE HISTORY: IMPORTANT TOPICS

 

LESSON 1: Introduction

What is religion?

What is the significance of religion?

1. Definition of Terms

1.1. What is ‘belief system’?

   Define ‘worldview’

1.1.1. Define Monism (All is one)

1.1.2. Define Polytheism (Many Gods)

1.1.3. Define Monotheism (One God)

1.1.4. Define Atheism (No God)

1.1.5. Give an example of a belief system or a worldview


1.2. Define ‘Religion’

1.2.1. What is man’s higher dimension?

1.2.2. What are transcendent beliefs?

1.2.3. What is religious text or scriptures?

1.2.4. What is religious ritual?

1.2.5. What is religious sacred space (e.g., church, temple, mosque, synagogue)?


1.3. Spirituality (define)

Briefly discuss the following elements of spirituality:

1.3.1. holistic (fully integrated view to life),

1.3.2. quest for meaning (including the purpose of life),

1.3.3. quest for the sacred (beliefs about God),

1.3.4. suggests a self-reflective existence.

1.4. What is Philosophy of Religion? (Define and briefly discuss)

1.5. What is Theology? (Define and briefly discuss)

 

2. Delineating ‘religion’

2.1. Compare and contrast Religion vs. Spirituality (briefly discuss)

2.2. Compare and contrast Religion vs. Theology (briefly discuss)

2.3. Compare and contrast Religion vs. Philosophy of Religion (briefly discuss)

3. Some Inferences

Briefly explain or elaborate these points:

3.1. A belief system or worldview is a particular way of ordering the realities of one’s world.

3.2. Religion is the pursuit of transformation guided by a sacred belief system.

3.3. Spirituality is one’s integrative view of life. It involves a quest for the meaning and ultimate value of life as opposed to an instrumentalist or materialistic attitude to life.

4. Explain: A spiritual man vs. a religious man (Make a character sketch of a person who is spiritual but not religious and a person who is religious but not spiritual.)

5. Explain: Filipinos are historically religious people.


LESSON 2. How World Religions Began

What is ‘world religion’?

2.1. The birthplace/s of religions

Cite regions or places where specific religions evolved (e.g. Holy land & India) and explain how religions emerged from them.

2.2. The cultural influences

Analyze the culture of the regions (e.g. Holy land & India) that gave rise to specific religions

2.3. Geography, religion, and culture

Explain how geography influences religion and religion affects culture

2.4. The influence of religion

Cite a case demonstrating the influence of a religion in a certain culture

2.5. Prove: Religions are influential in the Philippines throughout history


LESSON 3. Positive and Negative Effects of Religions

Prove: Religions are influential

3.1. The effects of religions

What are the negative effects of religions?

What are the positive effects of religions?

3.2. The influence of religion

Provide evidence that religion brought about a significant event in history

3.3. The significance of religion

Explain why (or justify) that religion can have positive or negative effects on society

3.4. What is religion for you?

3.5. Prove: Throughout history, religions are important in the life of the Filipinos.

 

LESSON 4. Judaism

What is Judaism?

Briefly discuss the following elements of Judaism:

a. Founders: Abraham (2000 B.C.) and/or Moses (1391-1271 B.C.)

b. Sacred texts: Torah, Poetry, Prophets, Talmud, Mishnah

c. Doctrines: Ten Commandments, 618 Rules

d. God: Yahweh/Jehovah

e. Sects: Orthodox, Conservative, Reform Liberal

f. Issues: Antisemitism, Zionism, Holocaust

4.1. The Ten Commandments

State and briefly discuss the Ten Commandments as stated in the Old Testament (Exodus 20)

4.2. Jewish customs and traditions

Identify a Jewish custom or tradition demonstrated in some movies (e.g. Fiddler in the Roof, Ten Commandments, Ben Hur)

4.3. The covenant of one God

Justify and explain: The core teaching of Judaism is the covenant of one God with a chosen people vs. other people with many gods.

4.4. Judaism: Belief in one God

Identify a story from the Old Testament that demonstrates the Jewish belief in one God (e.g. Story of Samson)

4.5. Discuss Judaism in the Philippines


LESSON 5: Christianity

What is Christianity?

Briefly discuss the following elements of Christianity:

a. Founder: Jesus Christ (c. 7 BC-30 A.D.)

b. Sacred texts: Bible (Old Testament and New Testament)

c. Doctrines: Trinity, Virgin Birth, Deity of Christ, Resurrection, Last Judgment

d: God: Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit); Monotheism (Only One God—the Father)

e. Sects: Roman Catholic, Greek/Eastern Orthodox, Protestantism, etc.

f. Issues: Ecumenism, Sexuality issues (e.g., contraception, homosexuality, ordination of women)

5.1. Some Texts

Sate and briefly discuss/comment on the Apostle’s Creed, The Lord’s Prayer, and the Beatitudes

5.2. The Parable of the Prodigal Son

State and interpret/explain the Parable of the Prodigal Son

5.3. The core teaching of Christianity

Explain: The core teaching of Christianity is the message that a loving God sent His begotten Son in order to redeem humankind from eternal damnation. (Plus: The significance of entering the Church that Christ built)

5.4. State and briefly explain the various Christian sects

5.5. Discuss the history of Christianity in the Philippines


LESSON 6: Islam

What is Islam?

Briefly discuss the following elements of Islam:

a. Founder: Prophet Muhammad (570-632 A.D.)

b. Sacred texts: Qur’an, Hadith

c. Doctrines: Five Pillars of Islam (Shahadah-declaring there is no other god but Allah and Muhammad is His messenger, Salat-ritual prayer five times a day, Sawm-fasting during Ramadan, Zakat-alms giving to the poor, and Hajj-pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime)

d. God: Allah

e. Practitioners: Sunni, Shi’ite, Sufi

f. Issues: Gender Inequality, Militant Islam, Migration

6.1. The opening lines of Qur’an

State the opening lines of Qur’an preferably from an English version. (Then briefly discuss)

6.2. The life and times of Prophet Muhammad

Retell the life and times of Prophet Muhammad

6.3. The core teaching of Islam

Explain: The core teaching of Islam is “there is only one God and Muhammad is His final and greatest messenger.”

6.4. Analyze Islam as a religion

6.5. Discuss the history of Islam in the Philippines


LESSON 7: Comparative Analysis

Explain & prove: Judaism, Christianity and Islam have similarities

7.1. Uniqueness and Similarities

Identify the uniqueness of:

a) Judaism

b) Chriatianity

c) Islam

Identify the similarities of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

7.2. Common Roots

Provide evidence or prove that Judaism, Christianity and Islam share common roots from Patriarch Abraham.

7.3. As influential religions

Justify that Judaism, Christianity and Islam, as monotheistic religions, have largely influenced the world today.

7.4. Discuss the influence of Judaism, Christianity and Islam in the Philippines


LESSON 8: Hinduism

What is Hinduism?

Briefly discuss the following elements of Hinduism:

a. Founders: Aryans (1500 B.C.)

b. Sacred texts: Vedas, Upanishads and Bhagavad-Gita

c. Doctrines: Dharma-duty, Kama-pleasure, Artha-wealth, Moksha-liberation, Brahman, Atman, the Identification of Brahman and Atman, the Four Yogas (Yoga of Knowledge, Yoga of Work, Yoga of Devotion or Love, and Yoga of Psychological Exercises)

d. Gods: 33 million gods and goddesses

e. Issues: Gender Inequality, Caste System, Poverty

8.1. The creation story in Rig Veda

State the creation story in Rig Veda. Then, briefly explain.

8.2. The major Hindu deities

Identify the names of the major Hindu deities as well as their corresponding functions or powers

8.3. The core teaching of Hinduism

Explain: The core teaching of Hinduism is the attainment of liberation in the identification of Atman and Brahman through the Four Yogas.

8.4. Evaluate Hinduism as a religion

8.5. Discuss the history of Hinduism in the Philippines


LESSON 9: Theravada Buddhism

What is Theravada Buddhism?

Briefly discuss the following elements of Theravada Buddhism:

a. Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 B.C.)

b. Sacred texts: Tripitaka

c. Doctrines: Four Noble Truths, Eight-fold Path, Law of Dependent Origination and The Impermanence of Things

d. God: non-theistic

e. Issue: Territory conflict in Mainland Southeast Asia

 

9.1. The Four Noble Truths and the Eight-fold path

State the Four Noble Truths and the Eight-fold path. Then, briefly discuss.

9.2. Cravings and Sufferings

Give examples of situations that demonstrate cravings which may lead to suffering according to Theravada Buddhism

9.3. The core teaching of Theravada Buddhism

Explain: The core teaching of Theravada Buddhism is that life is suffering; suffering is due to craving; there is a way to overcome craving; and the way to overcome craving is the Eight-fold Path, the Middle Way (between pleasure and mortification).

9.4. The Eight-fold Path and the Middle Way

Evaluate the Eight-fold Path in terms of how it achieves the Middle Way.

9.5. Discuss the history of Theravada Buddhism in the Philippines


LESSON 10: Mahayana Buddhism

What is Mahayana Buddhism?

Briefly discuss the following elements of Mahayana Buddhism:

a. Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (563-483 B.C.)

b. Sacred texts: Sutras

c. Doctrines: Four Noble Truths, Eight-fold Path, The Six Perfections to become a Bodhisattva (generosity, morality, patience, perseverance, meditation, and insight)

d. God: non-theistic

e. Issues: Tibet invasion, Engaged activism

f. Universality and growth of sects: Development of Buddhism to Zen (Chan) Buddhism as the fruit of its encounter with Taoism.

10.1. The three levels of perfection of Mahayana Buddhism

State the three levels of perfection of Mahayana Buddhism (moral discipline, cultivation of virtue, and altruistic conduct)

10.2. The acts of generosity

Give examples of acts of generosity of Mahayana Buddhists. Then discuss.

10.3. The core teaching of Mahayana Buddhism

Explain: The core teaching of Mahayana Buddhism is to seek complete enlightenment for the benefit of all living beings through insight and compassion.

10.4. The acts of generosity of Tzu Chi Foundation

Draw the insight from the acts of generosity of Tzu Chi Foundation that reflect the core teaching of Mahayana Buddhism

10.5. Discuss the history of Mahayana Buddhism in the Philippines


Lesson 11: Comparative Analysis

Explain: Hinduism, Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism have some similarities

11.1. Uniqueness and Similarities

Identify the uniqueness of:

a) Hinduism, ]

b) Theravada Buddhism

c) Mahayana Buddhism

Identify the similarities of Hinduism, Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism

11.2. Common Roots

Provide evidence or prove that Hinduism, Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism share common roots from India.

11.3. As influential religions

 Justify that Hinduism, Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism, as Vedic religions, have largely influenced the world today.

11.4. Discuss the influence of Hinduism, Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism in the Philippines

 

LESSON 12: Confucianism

What is Confucianism?

Briefly discuss the following elements of Confucianism:

a. Founder: Confucius (551-479 B.C.)

b. Sacred texts: Confucian Classics

c. Doctrines: Mandate of Heaven, T”ien, Human nature as originally good (Mencius) or evil (Hsun Tze), Rectification of Names, The Moral Way consisting of five cardinal virtues, Filial Piety, and Ancestor Worship

d. God: Heaven

e. Issues: Gender inequality, Authoritarianism

12.1. The five basic relationships

Describe and discuss the five basic relationships in Confucianism (king to subject, father to son, husband to wife, elder brother to younger brother and friend to friend)

12.2. Filial piety

Give examples of acts showing filial piety in the family, community and society

12.3. The core teaching of Confucianism

Explain: The core teaching of Confucianism is to be a “gentleman” by following the moral way consisting of the virtues of love, righteousness, wisdom, propriety and loyalty in order to promote harmony in society.

12.4. The virtuous man

Present a character sketch of a person who personifies the Confucian virtues. (Describe the virtuous man in Confucian perspective)

12.5. Discuss the history of Confucianism in the Philippines


LESSON 13: Taoism

What is Taoism?

The elements of Taoism (briefly discuss the following):

a. Founder: Lao Tzu (604 B.C. - ?)

b. Sacred texts: Tao Te Ching, Book of Chuang Tze

c. Doctrines: Wu-Wei, Law of Reversion, Following nature

d. Tao as the Origin of all Beings, unnameable and eternal

e. Issues: Inaction, Superstitious practices, Environmentalism


13.1. Tao as the origin of all beings

Explain that “Tao is the origin of all beings whose essence is nothing”

13.2. Love and respect of nature

Give examples of acts showing love and respect of nature and the environment

13.3. The core teaching of Taoism

Explain: The core teaching of Taoism is becoming one with ‘Tao.’

13.4. Evaluate Taoism as a religion

13.5. Discuss the history of Taoism in the Philippines


LESSON 14: Shintoism

What is Shintoism?

The elements of Shintoism (briefly discuss the following):

a. Founders: Prehistoric Animists of Japan

b. Sacred texts: Kojiki and Nihongi

c. Doctrines: belief in kami, divinity of emperors

d. Gods: kami (animist and nature spirits)

e. Issues: Shrine visits of Japanese prime ministers

14.1. The Kojiki creation story

Narrate the Kojiki creation story. Then, briefly explain

14.2. Worshiping gods

Explain why is it important for Japanese people to worship gods

14.3. The core teaching of Shintoism

Explain and evaluate: The core teaching of Shintoism is to worship the ancestors and forces of nature to achieve harmony in all dimensions.

14.4. The Kojiki creation story: An interpretation

State the Kojiki creation story and explain/interpret

14.4 Discuss the history of Taoism in the Philippines


LESSON 15: Comparative Analysis

Explain that Confucianism, Taoism and Shintoism have similarities.

15.1. Uniqueness and Similarities

Identify the uniqueness of:

a) Confucianism,

b) Taoism

c) Shintoism

Identify the similarities of Confucianism, Taoism and Shintoism

15.2. Common Traits

Provide evidence that Confucianism, Taoism and Shintoism share common traits in viewing nature and ancestors

15.3. As influential religions

Justify that Confucianism, Taoism and Shintoism as East Asian religions/philosophies have largely influenced the world today.

15.4. Discuss the influence of Confucianism, Taoism and Shintoism in the Philippines


LESSON 16: Synthesis

What is the history of religion?

16.1. Summary and Conclusions

What are the significance of religion?

What are the basic similarities of all world religions? Briefly explain.

16.2. Religion and man

Explain the following:

a. What is the meaning and ultimate value of life according to Christianity?

b. According to Confucianism, how should we relate to one’s self, family, society and nature?

c. According to Buddhism, what is the way to achieve personal happiness and fulfillment?

d. What is the meaning and ultimate value of life according to Islam?

e. According to Shintoism, how should we relate to one’s self, family, society and nature?

f. According to Hinduism, what is the way to achieve personal happiness and fulfillment?

16.2. Why are religions important to Filipinos?


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Comments

The word Islam means voluntary “Submission” or “Surrender” to the Will of God. It derives from the root word “salam,” meaning peace. In the Quran, God defines that the only purpose for which He created mankind is to Worship Him. Islam recognizes that humankind has free choice in whether to obey or disobey God, but ultimately we will be held accountable to God in the next life for the choices that we make in this life. God sent Prophets to teach mankind how to worship Him; starting with Adam, including Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and the last of the messengers, Muhammad (peace be upon them all). The Islamic position is that all of these prophets came with the same message, that there is no deity worthy of worship except the One True God, known in Arabic as Allah. Islam places great importance in the belief that the soul gives life to a human body. Likewise, in its absence, the human body dies and disintegrates. However, the soul is eternal and will be reunited with the body on the Day of Resurrection, when God will raise everyone to answer for their deeds on earth. Islam encourages the individual to focus on keeping the soul healthy, through the remembrance, obedience and worship of God. There should be a correct balance in strengthening the soul and not over-indulging with the pleasures of the body. url http://www.whyislam.org/islam/what-is-submission/ no author

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