by @jensenismo

Determine whether the argument is valid or invalid. If the argument is valid, state the rule of inference used. If it is invalid, name the fallacy committed.

1. If millions of children die yearly from starvation, then something is wrong with the government. Millions of children die yearly from starvation.

Therefore, something is wrong with the government.

2. If world population continues to grow, then Manila will become hopelessly overcrowded.

If Manila become hopelessly overcrowded, then Manila will become polluted.

Therefore, if world population continues to grow, then Manila will become polluted.

3. Either the breach is a safety violation, or it is not subject to fines.

The breach is a not safety violation.

Therefore, it is not subject to fines.

4. Either Harvard or Princeton is in New Jersey.

Harvard is not in New Jersey.

Therefore, Princeton is in New Jersey.

5. If Tom was a man, then he was mortal.

Tom was mortal.

Therefore, Tom was a man.

6. Either I will choose soup or I will choose salad.

I will not choose soup.

Therefore, I will choose salad.

7. If Borombong is a dog, then Borombong wags his tail.

Borombong wags his tail.

Therefore, Borombong is a dog.

8. It is either red or blue.

It is not blue.

Therefore, it is red.

9. If these statements are true:

If Sarah is sick, then Sarah will stay home.

If Vinny is awake, then she will want to eat.

Sarah will not stay home or Vinny will not want to eat.

Then it is also true that Sarah is not sick or Vinny is not awake.

10. If we are to reverse the greenhouse effect, then we must choose nuclear power; but if we are to lower the risk of a nuclear accident, then we must choose conventional power.

We will either not choose nuclear power or not choose conventional power.

Therefore, we will either not reverse the greenhouse effect or not lower the risk of a nuclear accident.

11. Suppose the statements “if there is a fire in the house, then there will be smoke in the house” and “if there is smoke in the house, then the smoke alarm will beep” are true. Then if there is a fire in the house, the smoke alarm will beep.

12. If it will rain, then I will wear my coat.

Therefore, if it will rain, it will rain and I will wear my coat.

Therefore, if it will rain, it will rain and I will wear my coat.

13. If I win a million pesos, I will donate it to a foundation.

If my friend wins a million pesos, he will donate it to a wildlife fund.

Either I or my friend win a million pesos.

Therefore, either a foundation or a wildlife fund will get a million pesos.

14. If twelve million children die yearly from starvation, then something is wrong with food distribution.

Twelve million children die yearly from starvation.

Therefore, something is wrong with food distribution.

15. If taxes increase, the economy will suffer, and if taxes decrease, needed government services will be curtailed.

Since taxes must either increase or decrease, it follows that the economy will suffer or that needed government services will be curtailed.

16. If I don’t study, then I won’t understand Philosophy.

If I don’t understand Philosophy, then I won’t make an A in this class.

Therefore if I don’t study, then I won’t make an A in this class.

17. If taxes increase, needed government services will be extended, and if taxes decrease, the economy will improve. Since taxes must either increase or decrease, it follows that needed government services will be extended or the economy will improve.

18. Plato is a man.

Therefore, either Plato is a man or the cows are flying in formation.

19. If we choose nuclear power, then we increase the risk of a nuclear accident; but if we choose conventional power, then we add to the greenhouse effect.

We must choose either nuclear power or conventional power.

Therefore, we either increase the risk of nuclear accident or add to the greenhouse effect.

20. If it floods, then the schools will be closed. It floods.

Therefore the schools are closed.

Rules of Inference: Sample Exam @ www.OurHappySchool.com

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